AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF QATAR AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME
The Government of the State of Qatar and the Government of the Republic of Latvia,
Desiring to conclude an Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income,
Have agreed as follows:

Article 1
PERSONS COVERED
This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2
TAXES COVERED
1. This Agreement shall apply to taxes on income imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its political subdivisions or local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.
2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on total income or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property.
3. The existing taxes to which the Agreement shall apply are in particular:
a) in the case of the State of Qatar:
- taxes on income:
(hereinafter referred to as "Qatari tax"); and
(i) in the case of the Republic of Latvia:
(i) the enterprise income tax (uznemumu icnakuma nodoklis); and
(ii) the personal income tax (icdzivotaju ienakuma nodoklis); (hereinafter referred to as "Latvian tax").
4. The Agreement shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes that are imposed after the date of signature of the Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes that have been made in their taxation laws.

Article 3
GENERAL DEFINITIONS
1. For the purposes of this Agreement„ unless the context otherwise requires:
a) the term "Qatar" means, the State of Qatar and, when used in the geographical sense, means the State of Qatar's lands, internal waters, territorial sea including its bed and sub soil, the air space over them, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, over which the State of Qatar exercises sovereign rights and jurisdiction in accordance with the provisions of international law and Qatar's national laws and regulations;
b) the term "Latvia" means the Republic of Latvia and, when used in the geographical sense, means the territory of the Republic of Latvia and any other area adjacent to the territorial waters of the Republic of Latvia within which under the laws of Latvia and in accordance with international law, the rights of Latvia may be exercised with respect to the sea bed and its sub-soil and their natural resources;
c) the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean Qatar or Latvia, as the context requires;
d) the term "person" includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons;
e) the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
f) the terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
g) the term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;
h) the term "competent authority" means:
(i) in the case of Qatar, the Ministry of Finance, or its authorized representative, and
(ii) in the case of Latvia. The Ministry of Finance or its authorised representative;
i) the term "national" in relation of a Contracting State means;
(i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;
(ii) any legal person. partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in that Contracting State.
2. As regards the application of the Agreement at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall. unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Agreement applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4
RESIDENT
1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means:
a) in the case of Qatar, any individual who has a permanent home, his centre of vital interest, or habitual abode in Qatar, and a company incorporated in Qatar. The term also includes the State of Qatar and any political subdivision, local authority or statutory body thereof;
b) in the case of Latvia, any person who, under the laws of Latvia, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management, place of incorporation or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes the Republic of Latvia and any local authority or statutory body thereof. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in Latvia in respect only of income from sources in Latvia.
2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:
a) he shall he deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
b) if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
d) if the residence status of an individual cannot be determined in accordance with the provisions of subparagraphs a), b) and c) above, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.
3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph l a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to settle the question by mutual agreement.

Article 5
PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT
1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially:
a) a place of management;
b) a branch;
c) an office;
d) a factory;
e) a workshop;
f) premises used as sales outlet;
g) a farm or plantation, and
h) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of exploration, extraction or exploitation of natural resources.
3. The term "permanent establishment" also encompasses:
a) a building site, a construction, assembly or installation project or any supervisory activity in connection with such site or project, but only where such site, project or activity continues for a period or periods aggregating more than 6 (six) months within any 12 (twelve) month period; and
b) the furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by an enterprise through employees or other personnel engaged by the enterprise for such purpose, but only if the activities of that nature continue (for the same or a connected project) within a Contracting State for period or periods aggregating more than 6 (six) months within any 12 (twelve) month period.
4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include:
a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;
f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub paragraphs a) to e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.
5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies - is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.
6. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise, and conditions are made or imposed between that enterprise and the agent in their commercial and financial relations which differ from those which would have been made between independent enterprises, he will not be considered an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.
7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or
otherwise), shall not of itself constitute cither company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6
INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. The term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, any option or similar right in relation to immovable property, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources. Ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property, as well as income from the alienation of immovable property.
4. Where the ownership of shares or other corporate rights in a company entitles the owner of such shares or corporate rights to the enjoyment of immovable property held by the company, the income from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of such right to enjoyment may be taxed in the Contracting State in which the immovable property is situated.
5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 3 and 4 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7
BUSINESS PROFITS
1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment in a Contracting State, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere, which are allowed under the provisions of the domestic law of the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated.
4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of' an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.
5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to he attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
7. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8
SHIPPING AND AIR TRANSPORT
1. Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.
2. For the purposes of this Article, profits of an enterprise from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic include:
a) profits from the rental on a bareboat basis of ships or aircraft; and
b) profits from the use, maintenance or rental of containers (including trailers and related equipment for the transport of containers) used for the transport of goods or merchandise:
where such rental or such use, maintenance or rental, as the case may be, is incidental to the operation of ships or aircraft by the enterprise in international traffic.
3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9
ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES
1. Where
a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,
and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.
2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State - and taxes accordingly - profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits if it agrees with the adjustment made by the first-mentioned State. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10
DIVIDENDS
1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:
a) 0 (zero) per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership);
b) 5 (five) per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.
This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph b) of paragraph 2, dividends referred to in paragraph 1 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the beneficial owner is a resident if:
a) the beneficial owner is a Contracting State, a political subdivision, a local authority, a statutory body or the Central Bank thereof;
b) in the case of Qatar, the beneficial owner is one of the following entities as long as they are wholly owned by Qatar:
(i) Qatar Investment Authority;
(ii) Qatar Holding,
(iii) Qatar Retirement Funds,
(iv) Qatar Development Bank, and
(v) any other institution, as may be agreed from time to time between the competent authorities of the Contracting States
c) in the case of Latvia, the beneficial owner is one of the following entities:
(i) the Latvian Guarantee Agency;
(ii) any other institution, as may be agreed from time to time between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.
4. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.
5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
6. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

Article 11
INTEREST
1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:
a) 0 (zero) per cent of the gross amount of the interest if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership);
b) 5 (five) per cent of the gross amount of the interest in all other cases.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest referred to in paragraph 1 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the beneficial owner is a resident if:
a) the beneficial owner is a Contracting State, a political subdivision, a local authority, a statutory body or the Central Rank thereof;
b) in the case of Qatar, the beneficial owner is one of the following entities as long as they are wholly owned by Qatar:
(i) Qatar Investment Authority;
(ii) Qatar Holding;
(iii) Qatar Retirement Funds;
(iv) Qatar Development Bank; and
(v) any other institution, as may be agreed from time to time between the competent authorities of the Contracting States;
c) in the case of Latvia, the beneficial owner is one of the following entities:
(i) the Latvian Guarantee Agency;
(ii) any other institution, as may be agreed from time to time between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.
4. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. The term "interest" shall not include any income which is treated as a dividend under the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 10. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purpose of this Article.
5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid. exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 12
ROYALTIES
1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 5 (five) per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.
3. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films and films, tapes or discs for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.
4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 13
CAPITAL GAINS
1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of shares or of a comparable interest of any kind deriving more than 50 (fifty) per cent of their value directly or indirectly from immovable property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State. However, the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to institutions and entities mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article 10.
3. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.
4. Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State operating ships or aircraft in international traffic from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.
5. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

Article 14
INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES
1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State except in the following circumstances, when such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State:
a) if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other Contracting State; or
b) if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 (one hundred and eighty three days) days in any 12 (twelve) month period commencing or ending in the taxable year concerned; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other State may be taxed in that other State.
2. The term "professional services" includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15
DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES
1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18 and 19, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:
a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 (one hundred and eighty three days) days in any 12 (twelve) month period commencing or ending in the taxation year concerned, and
b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and
c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.
3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State
4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, salaries, wages, allowances and other remuneration received by an employee in a top-level managerial position in an airline or shipping enterprise of a Contracting State, who is stationed in the other Contracting State, shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State.

Article 16
DIRECTORS' FEES
Directors' fees and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or any other similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17
ARTISTES AND SPORTPERSONS
1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsperson are exercised.
3. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from activities exercised in the other Contracting State as envisaged in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, shall be exempted from tax in that other State if the visit to that other State is supported wholly or substantially by funds of the first-mentioned State, a political subdivision or a local authority thereof, or takes place under a cultural agreement or arrangement between the Governments of the Contracting States.

Article 18
PFNSIONS AND ANNUITIES
1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration and annuities paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State.
2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article and paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid under the social security system of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.
3. The term "annuity" means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.

Article 19
GOVERNMENT SERVICE
1. a) Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
b) However, such salaries, wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that other State and the individual is a resident of that other State who:
(i) is a national of that other State; or
(ii) did not become a resident of that other State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
2. a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.
3. The provisions of Articles 15, 16. 17, and 18 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, and to pensions, in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20
TEACHERS AND RESEARCHERS
1. An individual who visits a Contracting State for the purpose of teaching or carrying out research at the university, college, museum or other recognised educational or scientific institution, or under an official program of cultural exchange in that Contracting State and who is or was immediately before that visit a resident of the other Contracting State, shall be exempted from taxation in the first-mentioned Contracting State on remuneration for such teaching or research for a period not exceeding 2 (two) years from the date of his first visit for that purpose.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to income from research if such research is undertaken not in the public interest but primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.

Article 21
STUDENTS AND TRAINEES
1. Payments which a student, an apprentice or a trainee who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.
2. In respect of the payments not covered by paragraph 1 of this Article, and remuneration for dependent personal services rendered during such education or training, a student, an apprentice or a trainee shall be entitled to the same exemptions, reliefs or reductions in respect of taxes on income as are available to the residents of the Contracting State he is visiting.

Article 22
OTHER INCOME
1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement shall be taxable only in that State
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 23
ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION
1. In the case of Latvia, double taxation shall be eliminated as follows:
Where a resident of Latvia derives income which, in accordance with this Agreement, may be taxed in Qatar, unless a more favourable treatment is provided in its domestic law, Latvia shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the income tax paid thereon in Qatar.
Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the income tax in Latvia, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to the income which may be taxed in Qatar.
2. In the case of Qatar double taxation shall be eliminated as follows:
Where a resident of Qatar derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, is taxable in Latvia, then Qatar shall allow as a deduction from the tax on income of that resident an amount equal to the tax paid in Latvia provided that such deduction shall not exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to the income derived from Latvia.

Article 24
NON-DISCRIMINATION
1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.
2. Stateless persons who are residents of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in either Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of the State concerned in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected.
3. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
4. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 7 of Article 11, or paragraph 6 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State.
5. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.
6. The provisions of this Article shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, apply to taxes of every kind and description.
7. The non taxation of Qatari nationals under Qatari tax law shall not be regarded as a discrimination under the provision of this Article.

Article 25
MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE
1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within 3 (three) years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement.
2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.
3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Agreement.
4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly, including though a joint commission consisting of themselves or their representatives, for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs.

Article 26
EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION
1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is foreseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.
2. Any information received under paragraph l by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution respect of, the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes referred to in paragraph 1, or the oversight of the above. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.
3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State:
b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (order public).
4. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph 3 but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.
5. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank. other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.

Article 27
MEMBERS OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND CONSUI.AR POSTS
Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 28
LIMITATION OF BENEFITS
1. Notwithstanding the provisions of any other Article of this Agreement, a resident of a Contracting State shall not receive the benefit of any reduction in or exemption from tax provided for in the Agreement by the other Contracting State if the main purpose or one of the main purposes of such resident or a person connected with such resident was to obtain the benefits of the Agreement.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to institutions and entities mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article 10.

Article 29
ENTRY INTO FORCE
1. The Contracting States shall notify each other in writing through diplomatic channels of the completion of the procedures required by their laws for bringing into force of this Agreement. The Agreement shall enter into force on the date of the later of these notifications.
2. The provisions of this Agreement shall have effect in both Contracting States:
a) with regard to taxes withheld at source. in respect of amounts paid or credited on or after the first day of January of the calendar year immediately following the year in which the Agreement enters into force; and
b) with regard to other taxes, in respect of taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year immediately following the year in which the Agreement enters into force.

Article 30
TERMINATION
1. This Agreement shall remain in force until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Agreement, through diplomatic channels, by giving written notice of termination at least 6 (six) months before the end of any calendar year following the expiration of a period of 5 (five) years from the date of its entry into force.
2. This Agreement shall cease to have effect in both Contracting States:
a) with regard to taxes withheld at source, in respect of amounts paid or credited on or after the first day of January of the calendar year immediately following the year in which the notice is given; and
b) with regard to other taxes, in respect of taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year immediately following the year in which the notice is given.

In witness whereof, the undersigned, duly authorised thereto, have signed this Agreement.
Done in duplicate at NewYork on the 26/9/2014, in the Arabic, Latvian and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In the case of any divergence the English text shall prevail.

For the Government of
the State of Qatar

For the Government of
the Republic of Latvia